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Cardinal Fields Of Gaze

Cardinal Fields Of Gaze Test

Cardinal Fields Of Gaze Normal Findings

Vestibulocochlear Cranial Nerve VIII Test Auditory Function Conduct the whispered voice test. If performed correctly, the whispered voice test is a straightforward test for identifying hearing impairment. Figure 6.20 depicts a test for hearing using the whispered voice. To correctly execute this test, follow the procedures below: To avoid lip reading, stand at arms length behind the sitting patient. Each ear is evaluated separately. The patient should be advised to occlude the non-test ear with their finger. Before whispering, exhale and use as quiet a voice as possible. Whisper a number and letter combination (for example, 4-K-2) and then ask the patient to repeat the sequence. If the patient properly replies, his or her hearing is regarded normal; if the patient erroneously responds, the test is repeated with an alternative number/letter combination. The patient is judged to have passed the screening test if they properly repeat at least three of the six available numbers or letters. The opposite ear is evaluated in the same way, but with a new set of numbers and letters.

This chapter covers the anatomy and physiology of the eye, as well as examination methodologies and results. The conjunctiva, inner and outer canthus, lacrimal apparatus, and extraocular muscles are all exterior parts of the eye. The interior structures of the eye are divided into three levels. The sclera and cornea are positioned on the surface of the eye. The middle layer of the eye contains the lens, choroid, iris, pupil, vitreous fluid, and anterior and posterior chambers. The retina, optic disc, macula, fovea centralis, cones, and rods are all found in the inner layer. The visual pathway receives pictures from the eye and transfers them to the occipital lobe of the brain through the optic nerve, optic disc, and optic chiasm.

Fundamental Science

The ocular motor system is comprised of five neurologic control systems, each of which is responsible for a distinct movement. These control mechanisms are there to keep pictures steady on the retina. To do so, the eyes must first concentrate on an item of interest, then move conjugately as the object or the head moves. Fixation movements, saccades, pursuit movements, vergence or depth-tracking movements, and compensating movements are among the five basic conjugate movements and their control systems (Leigh and Zee, 1983; Miller, 1985).

Main Outcome Metrics We assessed the greatest angle of ocular variations in each of the nine cardinal gaze orientations. We also compared the outcomes for men and women. Results Adduction 47.4, abduction 46.4, elevation 31.8, depression 47.8, elevation in adduction 39.7, elevation in abduction 40.7, depression in adduction 52.7, and depression in abduction 49.2 were the mean angles of maximum version. The mean maximum elevation angle was substantially less than the depression angle (P 0.001). There was no relationship between the greatest version angle and age, spherical equivalents, or axial length. Except for inferior gaze, men had a considerably larger angle of maximum version than females.

Cardinal Fields Of Gaze Cranial Nerve

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